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Descriptions of Australian Acacias

Individual species descriptions are provided at the WorldWideWattle Species Gallery.

The selected list of reference below provides complementary information, including species descriptions (and often keys, maps, illustrations, photographs and/or additional information such as biological, ecological, geographic etc. data).


Maslin, B.R. (2001). Acacia. In A.E. Orchard & A.J.G. Wilson (eds) Flora of Australia Volume 11A & 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia part 1 & 2. (ABRS/CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne). Descriptions and other taxonomic information, plus illustrations, distribution maps and some photographs, provided for Australian species of Acacia. Species treatments prepared by a range of authors.

Maslin, B.R. (coordinator) (2001). WATTLE Acacias of Australia. CD ROM Publication. (Published by Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra and Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth). An electronic companion to the Flora of Australia volumes 11A & 11B, containing additional descriptive information and a interactive key to species identification.

Simmons, M.H. (1981). Acacias of Australia. (Nelson: Melbourne.). Descriptions, illustrations and some photographs provided for 150 species.

Simmons, M.H. (1988). Acacias of Australia. Volume 2. (Viking O’Neil, Penguin Books Australia Ltd: Melbourne.), Descriptions, illustrations and some photographs provided for 150 species.

Australian Capital Territory

Burbidge, N.T. and Gray, M. (1970). Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. (Australian National University Press: Canberra.)

Central Australia

Latz, P.K. (1995). Bushfires & Bushtucker: Aboriginal plant use in Central Australia. (IAD Press: Alice Springs.)

Latz, P.K. (1999). Pocket Bushtucker: a field guide to the plants of Central Australia and their traditional uses. (Jukurrpa Books: Alice Springs.)

Maslin, B.R. (1981). Acacia. In Flora of Central Australia (J.Jessop, ed.), pp. 115-142. (A.H. & A.W.Reed: Sydney.)

New South Wales

Armitage, I. (1978). Acacias of New South Wales. (New South Wales Region of the Society for Growing Australian Plants)

Beadle, N. (1972). Students Flora of north eastern New South Wales. Part II. (University of New Engleand: Armidale, N.S.W.)

Carolin, R.C. and Tindale, M.D. (1994). Flora of the Sydney Region. 4th ed. (Reed: Chatswood.)

Cunningham, G. H., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. and Leigh, J.H. (1981). Plants of western New South Wales. (Government Printer, Sydney.)

Fairley, A. and Moore, P. (1989). Native Plants of the Sydney District. (Kangaroo Press and The Society for Growing Australian Plants: Sydney.)

Hall, N. and Johnson, L.A.S. (1993). The Names of Acacias of New South Wales. (Royal Botanic Gardens: Sydney.)

Kodela, P.G. and Harden, G.J. (2002). Acacia. In Flora of New South Wales (G.J.Harden, ed.), vol. 2, 2nd edn, pp. 381-476. (Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust: Sydney.)

Maiden, J.H. (1902-1924) The Forest Flora of New South Wales, vol. 1-8. (Government Printer: Sydney.) [Acacia treatments appear in a number of these volumes.]

National Herbarium of New South Wales. WattleWeb and PlantNET: a web guide to wattles of New South Wales.

Robinson, L. (1991). Field Guide to the Native Plants of Sydney. (Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst.)

Stelling, F. (ed.) (1998). From little things big things grow … South West Slopes Revegetation Guide (south of the Murrumbidgee River). ((Murray Catchment Management Committee & Department of Land & Water Conservation: Albury, N.S.W.)

Northern Territory

Brock, J. (1988). Top end native plants. (John Brock: Winnellie, Darwin, Northern Territory.)

Dunlop, C.R., Leach, G.J. and Cowie, I.D. (1995). Acacia. In Flora of the Darwin Region, Northern Territory Botanical Bulletin 20, 1-21. (Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.)


Anderson, E. (1993). Plants of central Queensland, thier identification and uses. (Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane.)

Lebler, B.A. (1981). Wildflowers for south-eastern Queensland. Vol. 2. (Govternment Printer: Queensland.)

Lithgow, G. (1997). 60 Wattles of the Chinchilla and Murilla Shires. (Published by the author).

Pedley, L. (1978). A revision of Acacia Mill. in Queensland. Austrobaileya 1: 75-234.

Pedley, L. (1979). A revision of Acacia Mill. in Queensland (concluded). Austrobaileya 1: 235-337.

Stanley, T.D. and Ross, E.M. (1983). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. (Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane)

Williams, K.A. (1980). Native plants of Queensland. vol. 1, ed. 2. (Published by the author.)

Williams, K.A. (1984). Native plants of Queensland. vol. 2. (Published by the author.)

Williams, K.A. (1987). Native plants of Queensland. vol. 3. (Published by the author.)

South Australia

Bonney, N (1995). What seed is that? A field guide to the identification, collection and germination of native seed in South Australia. (Finsbury Press: Australia.)

Boomsma, C.D. (1981). Native trees of South Australia. (Conservator of Forests: Adelaide.)

Whibley, D.J.E. and Symon, D.E. (1992). Acacias of South Australia. (South Australian Government Printer, Adelaide.) [An electronic key to the Acacias of S.A. is presented at the Electronic Flora of South Australia]

South-eastern Australia

Costermans, L. (1981). Native Trees and Shrubs of South-eastern Australia. (Rigby Publishers Ltd, Adelaide.)

Tame, T. (1992). Acacias of Southeast Australia. (Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst.)


Curtis, W.M. (1975). The students flora of Tasmania. Part 1 (second edition), revised by W.M. Curtis and D.I. Morris. (Government Printer: Tasmania.)


Costermans, L. (1994). Trees of Victoria, ed. 5. (Landsdowne Publishing: Sydney.)

Court, A.B. (1973). In J.H. Willis, A handbook to the Plants in Victoria. vol. 2. (Melbourne University Press on behalf of The Maud Gibson Gardens Trust: Melbourne.)

Entwistle, T.J., Maslin, B.R., Cowan, R.S. and Court, A.B. (1996). Mimosaceae. In Flora of Victoria (N.G.Walsh and T.J.Entwistle, eds), vol. 3, 585-656. (Inkata Press, Melbourne.)

Western Australia

Lewington, M.A. (1998). Mimosaceae. In B.J.Grieve, How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers, part II, 2nd edn, pp. 140-333. (University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, in association with the Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.), Floreat.)

Maslin, B.R. (1982). Studies in the genus Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), 11, Acacia species of the Hamersley Range area, Western Australia. Nuytsia 4: 61-103.

Maslin, B.R. (1998). Wattles of the Kalannie region: their identification, characteristics and utilisation. (CDROM Publ. for the Kalannie Land Care District by Dept. Conservation and Land Management, Perth.)

Mitchell, A.A. and Wilcox, D.G. (1994). Arid shrubland plants of Western Australia. Revised edition. (Department of Agriculture: Perth.)

Rusbridge, S., Gradley, G. and Gradley, G. (1996). Plant identification handbook for land rehabilitation in the goldfields of Western Australia. (Goldfields Land Rehabilitation Group: Kalgoorlie.)

Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase — The Western Australian Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Wheeler, J.R. (1992). Acacia. In Flora of the Kimberley Region (J.R.Wheeler, B.L.Rye, B.L.Koch and A.J.G.Wilson, eds), pp. 284-337. (Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management: Como.)


Commonly utilised species (see also references under State listings above)

Australian Biological Resources Study. SpeciesBank website.

Boland, D.J., Brooker, M.I.H., Chippendale, G.M., Hall, N., Hyland, B.P.M., Johnston, R.D., Kleinig, D.A. and Turner, J.D. (1984). Forest Trees of Australia. Ed. 4. 687 pp. (Thomas Nelson Australia, Melbourne and CSIRO, Melbourne.)

Descriptions of a few useful multipurpose Acacias provided by FACT Net.

Doran, J. and Turnbull, J. (1997). Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. ACIAR Monograph No. 24. p.384. (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra.)

Maslin, B.R. and McDonald, M.W. (1996). A key to useful Australian Acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. (CSIRO: Australia.)

Maslin, B.R., Thomson, L.A.J., McDonald, M.W. and Hamilton-Brown, S. (1998). Edible wattle seeds of southern Australia. A review of species for use in semi-arid regions. 108 pp. (CSIRO: Australia.)


Chandler, B. and Heins, S. (1975). Two hundred Wattles for gardens. (The David G. Stead Memorial.)

Description of Scarlet Blaze (variant of Acacia leprosa) is available on the web.

Elliot, W.R. and Jones, D.L. (1982). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants suitable for cultivation. vol. 2. (Lothian Publishing Company.)

Elliot, W.R. and Jones, D.L. (1994-1999). Supplement to Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants suitable for cultivation. Supplements 1-4. (Lothian Publishing Company.)

Simmons, M.H. (1987). Growing Acacias. (Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst, N.S.W.)

Society for Growing Native Plants website.

Extra-Australian phyllodinous species

Pedley, L. (1975). Revision of the extra-Australian species of Acacia subg. Heterophyllum. Contributions from the Queensland Herbarium 18: 1-24.

Miscellaneous descriptions on web (additional to those in references already cited)

Description of Mulga (Acacia aneura) is available on the web. A detailed discussion of the variation in the Mulga complex is available elsewhere on WorldWideWattle.

Descritpion of Kurara (Acacia tetragonophylla) is available on the web.

Page last updated: Thursday 22 June 2023