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Acacia julifera

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Acacia julifera Benth., London J. Bot . 1: 374 (1842)

Tree to c. 7.5 m high or straggly shrub to c. 3 m. Bark rough, fibrous, reddish, greyish brown or black. Branchlets slightly flattened towards apices, very slender, reddish or purplish brown, tomentose, later glabrous. Juvenile phyllodes elliptic, oblique, straight or slightly falcate, densely tomentose. Mature phyllodes narrowly lanceolate, gradually tapered to base, flat, falcate, 7–19 cm long, 5–33 mm wide, thinly coriaceous, glabrous to tomentose, with 3 prominent main nerves separate from apex to base, the minor nerves 6–9 per mm, parallel, not anastomosing, raised; gland 1, basal, inconspicuous, to 2.2 mm above pulvinus. Spikes 2–6.5 cm long, golden. Flowers 5-merous; calyx 0.5–1.2 mm long, dissected for 1/3–2/3, papillose or non-papillose, pubescent; corolla 1.1–1.8 mm long, dissected to 1/2, with papillose apex; ovary lanate. Pods linear, almost straight-sided, terete when fresh, 9.5–17 cm long, later longitudinally striate, glabrous or puberulous and papillose. Seeds longitudinal, oblong- or compressed-elliptic, 3.4–4.5 mm long, brown; pleurogram U-shaped, with yellowish halo; areole mostly paler than rest of seed.

Occurs in Qld from SE part of the Gulf of Carpentaria S through coastal and subcoastal areas. There are records, which are possibly doubtful, from the North Coast, N.S.W. Flowers Mar.–Aug.

According to L.Pedley, Austrobaileya 1: 140 (1978), A. curvinervia intergrades with A. julifera on the eastern side of its range. Related also to A. blakei , A. meiosperma and other species with spikes arranged in racemes. Specimens without fruit may be confused with A. torulosa or A. spirorbis subsp. solandri .

Details of ecology, utilisation, etc. of A. julifera are given in J.W.Turnbull (ed.), Multipurpose Austral. Trees & Shrubs 148 (1986).

There are 2 subspecies.

Mature phyllodes glabrous or subglabrous, l: w = 4–12 (–19); spikes 2–4.5 cm long; calyx lobes papillose

subsp. julifera

Mature phyllodes moderately densely silvery-pubescent, l: w = 12–20; spikes 2–6.5 cm long; calyx lobes not papillose

subsp. gilbertensis


Acacia julifera Benth. subsp. julifera

Phyllodes c. 7–17 cm long, 5–33 mm wide, l:w c. 4–12 (–19), usually glabrous except juveniles. Spikes 2–4.5 cm long. Calyx 0.6–1.3 mm long, usually papillose at apices of lobes. Corolla c. 1.2–1.8 mm long.

Occurs in Qld from near Forsayth S to the N.S.W. border; possibly occurring on the North Coast of N.S.W. (records not verified). Grows in coastal and subcoastal country, often on sandstone, in well-drained sandy soils in open eucalypt scrub-woodland or grassland.

Type of accepted name

Rodds Bay, NE Coast, Qld, May 1819, A.Cunningham 325 ; holo: K; iso: NSW.


Racosperma juliferum (Benth.) Pedley, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 92: 248 (1986); R. juliferum (Benth.) Pedley, subsp. juliferum , loc. cit. Type: as for accepted name.

Acacia holcocarpa Benth., Fl. Austral. 2: 408 (1864). Type: inner entrance of Thirsty Sound, Port II, Entrance Is., East Coast, Qld, R.Brown ; holo: K; iso: BM, E n.v.


J.H.Maiden, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 30: pl. 2, figs 8a–11 (1918), not fruit or seeds; B.A.Lebler, Wildfl. SE Queensland 2: 20 (1981); M.Simmons, Acacias Australia 1: 273 (1987), excluding single phyllode; K.A.W.Williams, Native Pl. Queensland 4: 23 (1999).

Representative collections

Qld: on roadside from Eidsvold to Monto, S.J.Davies 64 & J.M.Powell (A, AD, BRI, CANB, HO, K, L, MEL, MO, NSW, PERTH, UC, US, Z); Seventeen Mile Rd, Helidon Hills, P.Grimshaw 614 & P.Robins (BRI, MEL, NSW); 52 km N of Warrego Hwy on Auburn Rd, A.N.Rodd 4180 & V.Hando (K, MEL, NSW).


Acacia julifera subsp. gilbertensis Pedley, Austrobaileya 1: 162 (1978)

Phyllodes 8–18 cm long, 6–13.5 mm wide, l:w 12–20, silvery-sericeous, becoming glabrescent with age. Spikes 2–6.5 cm long. Calyx 0.5–0.9 mm long, the lobes not papillose. Corolla 1.1–1.6 cm long.

Confined to the upper catchments of the Mitchell, Norman and Gilbert Rivers, Qld, on plains or hillsides, in sandy seasonally water-logged soils in open Melaleuca and eucalypt scrub or woodland, or in grasslands. Flowers May–Aug.

Type of accepted name

Esmeralda Stn, Burke District, Qld, July 1954, S.T.Blake 19655 ; holo: BRI; iso: K, also n.v .: A, CANB, L, LE, PR.


Racosperma juliferum subsp. gilbertense (Pedley) Pedley, Austrobaileya 2: 350 (1987). Type: as for accepted name.


M.Simmons, Acacias Australia 1: 273 (1987), single phyllode.

Representative collections

Qld: ; 50 km NW of Croydon, D.H.Benson 849 (NSW); 5 km E of Chillagoe on road to Petford, P.Hind 6093 & J.Holland (BRI, NSW); 40 km N of Georgetown, B.L.Rice 2415 (BRI, CANB, K, NSW).


WATTLE Acacias of Australia CD-ROM graphic

The information presented here originally appeared on the WATTLE CD-ROM which was jointly published by the Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, and the Department of Parks and Wildlife, Perth; it was produced by CSIRO Publishing from where it is available for purchase. The WATTLE custodians are thanked for allowing us to post this information here.

Page last updated: Thursday 22 June 2023